Doughnut Economics

Doughnut Economics

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Doughnut economics is a visual framework for sustainable development that illustrates that social systems sit within overall planetary boundaries and ecological systems.[1]

It consists of two concentric rings:

  • A social foundation – to ensure that no one is left falling short on life’s essentials.
  • An ecological ceiling – to ensure that humanity does not collectively overshoot planetary boundaries.

Between these two boundaries lies a doughnut-shaped space that is both ecologically safe and socially just – a space in which humanity and the entire Earth Community can thrive.[2]

The original model was developed by University of Oxford economist Kate Raworth in her 2012 Oxfam paper ‘A Safe and Just Space for Humanity’[3] and elaborated upon in her 2017 book Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist.[4]

Greenprints has developed a revised diagram representing a more Earth-centric approach and Indigenous concepts like caring for country.