Doughnut economics is a visual framework for sustainable development that illustrates that social systems sit within overall planetary boundaries and ecological systems.
It consists of two concentric rings:
- A social foundation – to ensure that no one is left falling short on life’s essentials.
- An ecological ceiling – to ensure that humanity does not collectively overshoot planetary boundaries.
Between these two boundaries lies a doughnut-shaped space that is both ecologically safe and socially just – a space in which humanity and the entire Earth Community can thrive.
The original model was developed by University of Oxford economist Kate Raworth in her 2012 Oxfam paper ‘A Safe and Just Space for Humanity’ and elaborated upon in her 2017 book Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist.
GreenPrints has developed a revised diagram representing a more Earth-centric approach and Indigenous concepts like caring for country. See below!
-  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doughnut_(economic_model)
-  https://doughnuteconomics.org/
-  Raworth, Kate (2012). A Safe and Just Space for Humanity: Can We Live within the Doughnut? (PDF). Oxfam Discussion Papers.
-  Raworth, Kate (2017). Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st Century Economist. Vermont: White River Junction. p. 254. ISBN 9781603586740. OCLC 961205457.